A Laboratory Introduction to Psychology by John W. P. Ost

By John W. P. Ost

Creation to laboratory experiments within the box of psychology, uncomplicated for advent collage classes

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REFERENCE Lewis, D. R. Partial reinforcement: A selective review of the literature since 1950. Psychological Bulletin, 1960, 57, 1-28. EXPERIMENT 6 MOTIVATION PROBLEM Psychologists define motivation (or drive) in terms of the operations used to establish it; since the definition amounts to a description of these operations, it is called an operational definition. For example, we define the thirst drive in terms of number of hours of water deprivation, that is, in terms of the operation of depriving the animal of water.

And measured the perceived magnitude P of each weight on some psychological scale. Equation 1 predicts that P would be a linear function of log S. That is, if we plotted P as a function of log S, the function should approximate a straight line. More recently, S. S. , n has one numerical value for apparent weight, another value for loudness, another for brightness, and so forth. Unlike Equation 1, Equation 2 predicts that log P will be a linear function of log S. That is, if we rewrite Equation 2 in logarithmic form, we have log P = logfc+ n logS (3) This is the equation for a straight line with slope n.

The Proportion Illusion for boxes M and L is . To compute an estimate of p, we use logarithms. Start with the above equation, and add 1 to both sides: Proportion Illusion + 1 = (B2/B1)P RELATIVE-SIZE ILLUSION 61 Take logarithms of both sides, and log (Proportional Illusion + 1) = p log (B2lBx) Solving the equation for p, we have _ log (Proportional Illusion + 1) ~ log (BJBO P Complete these calculations for all three possible ratios B^JBX ; that is, L/S, L/M, and M/S. Estimates of p for L/S is L/M is M/S is These three values should be fairly close together, for they are all estimates of the same (theoretical) quantity.

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