A note-book of European history, 1400-1920 by Samuel Hugh McGrady

By Samuel Hugh McGrady

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Iii) Compensation of the Catholic Church for the influence lost in Europe by the Reformation. (iv) Increased production of the precious metals which caused prices and wages to advance in Europe. g. maize, potato, cocoa, quinine, and tobacco. The Spanish Empire fell to pieces (1808-1825) owing to: (a) the Revolt of the Thirteen Colonies from Great Britain and the French Revolution; (b) the economic exploitation of the colonies by Spain j (c) the Peninsular War, which gave the colonists a chance to set up practically independent states.

2) INCREASING SECULARIZATION OF THE CHURCH (a) The Lives of the Popes, in theory the representatives of God on earth, but in reality secular princes. g. John XXII against the Visconti; Julius II against Venice. g. conduct of Alexander VI and his son, Cesare Borgia. " The Venetian Ambassador described Rome as the sewer of the world (1499), and D • AGE OF THE RENAISSANCE Machiavelli thought that through its example all religion had perished in Italy. (b) The Abuses of the Ecclesiastical Courts. "The rule of the Church was nothing for nothing," and the Curia sold justice to the highest bidder.

A) Disunion, caused by configuration. (b) Lack of wealth. Only in Catalonia was there a middle class and a trading population. e. g. the extermination of the Moriscos of Granada. (ii) Destruction of Individualism. (a) Government a bureaucracy - hence, initiative destroyed, justice corrupt, local freedom crushed. (b) Theocracy. The Inquisition punished not only heresy, but political offences. Intellectual independence was impossible. (iii) Financial and Commercial Policy. g. corn and cattle. (b) Trade monopolized by foreigners.

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