Activation of Alkenes and Alkynes by M. M. Taqui Khan

By M. M. Taqui Khan

Homogeneous Catalysis through steel Complexes, quantity II: Activation of Alkenes and Alkynes reports and systematizes the chemistry of steel ion activation of alkenes and alkynes. The ebook provides the migration of ? bonds; the oxo response; and the hydrosilation of alkenes and alkynes. The textual content additionally covers themes at the oxidation of alkenes and alkynes, in addition to the a number of insertion reactions of alkenes and alkynes.

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Formation of dialdehydes from α,ω-diolefins suggests that CH 2 —CH—CH2—CH—CH2 105 OHC—CH 2 —CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 —CH 2 —CHO 106 (61) CHO OH 107 CH2—CH—CH2—CH2—CH2—CH 2 CH 3 —CH—CH 2 —CH 2 —CH 2 —CH 2 —CHO 108 CHO 109 (62) 44 3. THE OXO REACTION no migration of the double bonds takes place during the oxo reaction in these instances. This observation may be due to the formation of a diolefin chelate complex with the rhodium(III) chloride catalyst with subsequent 1,6-insertion of carbon monoxide as depicted by formula 111 of reaction (63).

THE OXO REACTION internal olefins ^ cyclic olefins > branched terminal olefins > branched internal olefins. The order reflects the steric hindrance offered by branchedchain and internal olefins for the addition of hydrogen and formyl groups across the double bond. According to the rule originally formulated by Kueleman et al. [94] and modified by Wender and Sternberg [95], tertiary carbon atoms participate in the oxo reaction only to a limited extent. Tertiary carbon centers that are resistant to hydroformylation may still be susceptible to homogeneous catalytic hydrogénation [96].

10 M'1 second - 1 at 25°C. 1 kcal/ Co(N2)(PPh3)3 + 1-hexene (l-hexene)(PPh3)3Co [(2-hexene)(PPh3)3Co]2 + 2 [1-hexene] . fast ► (l-hexene)(PPh3)3Co + N 2 ► [(2-hexene)(PPh3)3Co]2 (53) (54) 2 (l-hexene)Co(PPh3)3 + 2 [2-hexene] (55) 37 IL METAL COMPLEX-CATALYZED ττ-BOND MIGRATION mole and AS* = — 21 eu. 2 HC=^CHR RHC H2C 93 92 In addition to the "3,r-hydride shift" illustrated by 92 and 93, reasonable alternatives are the standard olefin isomerization mechanisms: (1) the addition and elimination of a metal hydride and (2) rearrangement through a 7r-allyl hydride.

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