Advances in Marine Biology, Vol. 25 by J.H.S. Blaxter (ed.), A.J. Southward (ed.)

By J.H.S. Blaxter (ed.), A.J. Southward (ed.)

Quantity 25 of this authoritative evaluate sequence maintains the excessive average set via the editors some time past. Marine biologists far and wide have come to price and luxuriate in the wide range of thought-provoking papers written by means of invited experts.In this quantity are reports of 4 animal teams which span the complete diversity of the marine meals chain. The position of parasites in ecology is a transforming into curiosity and the parasites of zooplankton are defined intimately for the 1st time. points of thegastropods, cephalopods and fish lifestyles also are tested intimately.

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Other problems of identifying and quantifying prey in predator stomachs include feeding by predators in the net and voiding of gut contents during collection or preservation. Nicol (1984) and Lancraft and Robison (1980) reported net feeding on assorted prey by euphausiids and pelagic fishes, respectively. Veer (1985) noted that 95% of individual ctenophores, P . pileus, voided their stomach contents after fixation in formalin. 2. Estimating consumption Once predation upon fish eggs and larvae has been established, it is necessary to estimate the daily ingestion by predators and then to partition it into specific prey items.

Zottoli and Horne (1983) demonstrated a connection between the lateral line and Mauthner cells in adult goldfish. In the zebrafish the faststartle response can be elicited in embryos by tactile or vibrational stimulation as early as 44 h after fertilization (Eaton and DiDomenico, 1986). 20 K. M. BAILEY A N D E. D. HOUDE Burst swimming may be effective to escape predators that pursue prey. Burst swimming speed is a function of length (Fig. 7) developmental stage, and feeding condition (Yin and Blaxter, 1987).

9(d). Yolk-sac anchovy larvae were less vulnerable because of low visibility; maximum predation rate was attained on first-feeding larvae before improved escape abilities or predator gape limitation caused a decrease in vulnerability . A general summary of size-dependent vulnerability to different types of predators is presented in Table 1. Exceptions to this scheme exist and speciesspecific differences in behavior and activity affect vulnerability. Yet, there are at least three notable results in Table 1: (1) the relative invulnerability of eggs to some predator types.

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