Advances in veterinary science and comparative medicine. by James L Bittle; Frederick A Murphy

By James L Bittle; Frederick A Murphy

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Pasteur's classical vaccine, developed from infected spinal cord tissue dried at room temprerature for 3 - 1 4 days, was given in a series of 2 1 - 2 8 inoculations beginning with material dried the longest and progressing through material dried for only 3 days (Pasteur 1881). Even though the last inoculum was virulent enough to cause rabies, the earlier inoculations conferred sufficient immunity to protect the recipients. This method of producing a vaccine was successful in most instances but caused the disease occasionally and was eventually replaced by chemically inactivated vaccines prepared from infected brain tissue.

Mycobacterium bovis, closely related to M. tuberculosis, and M. avium causes disease primarily in cattle and birds. They can, however, be contagious to man, sheep, and pigs. Immunization. Immunoprophylaxis for tuberculosis is based on vaccination with an attenuated, relatively avirulent strain of M. bovis t h a t does not produce lesions. The strain is known as BCG or the bacillus of Calmette and Guérin (1924, 1926). Worldwide, this is one of the most widely used h u m a n vaccines, as it has proven efficacious in controlling a severe disease.

The strain is known as BCG or the bacillus of Calmette and Guérin (1924, 1926). Worldwide, this is one of the most widely used h u m a n vaccines, as it has proven efficacious in controlling a severe disease. Additionally, BCG has been used for nonspecific enhancement of resistance against tumors and other infec- 42 J A M E S L. BITTLE A N D S U S I E M U I R tions. The cell wall of M. tuberculosis when used in Freund's adjuvant. F. is a potent immunostimulant Streptococcus Although streptococci may be normal inhabitants of the gastrointestinal tract, they may also be pathogenic for both man and animals.

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