Ambient Intelligence - Impact on Embedded System Design by T Basten, M. Gellen

By T Basten, M. Gellen

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In fact‚ I/O bandwidth optimization is probably the most obvious improvement from Itanium I to Itanium II. Itanium II is obviously a full custom design and implements a number of innovative and technology and circuit techniques to achieve higher speed. Even though the details of circuit-level design are outside the scope of our overview (the interested reader is referred to [25] and references therein)‚ three important points are worth mentioning. First‚ dynamic logic is used extensively throughout the chip; second‚ a great deal of attention is dedicated to clock distribution (which uses a balanced H-tree architecture); third‚ custom self-timed and clock domain interface circuits are common in various parts of the processor.

Light entering the CCR is normally reflected back parallel to the incoming beam‚ but it can be deflected by electrically actuating the CCR so that less light is reflected. The former case represents the communication of a “1”‚ the latter case a “0”. The CCR is able to transmit data at 4 Kbps with a range over 100m. The downlink section uses the same laser beam used to interrogate the CCR‚ yet in a different frequency band. Concerning power consumption‚ the two largest contributors are the optical receiver that consumes at 375Kbps‚ and the digital section of the CMOS chip‚ that consumes Including the remaining blocks‚ the overall power consumption of the system is around Challenges Ahead Technology scaling and advances in MEMS will allow such devices to become more and more integrated‚ and their size will soon fall below the cubic millimeter mark.

This calls for middleware that is scalable to meet different footprints and operating systems. It also calls for bridging and gateway concepts that support data exchange between networks applying different communication protocols. Dynamics refers to the ability of networked systems to adapt to changes of the environment‚ such as position‚ context‚ configuration‚ data‚ and others. To be able to cope with the issues mentioned above‚ ambient intelligent middleware should support the following functionalities: device abstraction‚ resource management‚ stream management‚ content and asset management‚ personalization‚ collaboration‚ multimodal interaction‚ context awareness‚ and security.

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